The town of Peshtera has an old and interesting history which traces its origin from ancient times. Over the millennia, this place was inhabited by Thracians, Slavs, and Bulgarians, which underwent the influence of the Greeks, Macedonians, Romans and Ottomans. The Thracian tribe Bessi is considered to be the first settlers in the area. In the Middle Ages the population was engaged mainly in agriculture, cattle and mining.
During Ottoman rule the inhabitants of Peshtera participated in the haidouk movement and national liberation struggles. The town's history is collected in a rich collection of over 8,000 artifacts revealing the life in different periods. The picturesque historic towns of Batak and Bratsigovo are located near Peshtera, they were centers of emblematic historical events.
Peshtera has a well developed economy; there are several big factories in the city: "Biovet" - plant for antibiotics and medications, "Winery Peshtera" - a plant for wine and alcoholic products, and many shoe factories.